Poultry farming simply entails raising domestic birds for food or eggs. Poultry farming is a sub-sector of the vast agricultural sector. Poultry farming in Nigeria is the simplest thing, yet one of the most delicate. Domestic birds like geese, fowls, turkey, ducks, guinea fowl, and others are common birds you will find in this sphere. We can find them in corners of our streets and in stagnant waters, scavenging from our bins and eating from our leftover food. They can be the most peaceful birds. However, one needs various techniques to raise hundreds, even tens, of them.
Things You Should not Worry About
If there a Market for Poultry Farm Produce in Nigeria
Extremely lucrative, poultry farming does not require a lot of resources to become successful. In fact, if you can save up or borrow up to N50k, you are good to go! Interestingly, this is an industry whose clients, consumers, and demands will keep coming. This is because the world, most importantly, Nigeria, will not stop eating chicken eggs, chicken, turkey, and so on.
As one of the fastest-growing industries in Nigeria, the poultry industry is worth well over N1.6tr according to The Cable. It is also reported that Nigeria is the hub for egg production in Africa, closely followed by South Africa.
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If you Need a Degree in Agriculture or Vet. Medicine
This is not to say no knowledge is required to start poultry farming in Nigeria. This is to say success can be achieved in this business even when all you have is a few weeks of apprenticeship from an expert. There are several short poultry courses one can take online and offline. This is to better equip you with better information on how to handle difficulties, know what to expect at different stages of the business, and how to deal with them. Birds are very delicate, one mistake can be costly.
7 Step-by-Step Process Flow to Start Your Own Poultry Farm in Nigeria
Draw a Detailed Business Plan
Growing in a gradual, steady manner is important in this business. Even if you have the means to start from the big stage, I would advise you to start small if you do not plan to have seasoned experts in your full employ.
This is because it is relatively easier to manage difficulties and your learning process if you have a small group of birds than large ones. This way, you are not afraid to fail forward (if it comes down to that).
Know Why you are in Poultry Farming Business in Nigeria
Ask yourself again. What value do I aim to add by raising birds? What is the focus? Why am I doing this? This could be the most difficult and easiest of your business decisions…so make no mistakes here. Your envisaged end-product will ultimately determine the breed you will be raising.
Get your Capital
This is a vital part of the poultry farming business. Get your money at hand, prevent scampering around when you need to get things done. A capital of N50,000 – N80,000 would be reasonable to start up with, depending on the availability of resources and your taste. There are now easy ways to get quick loans on your phone, don’t let lack of adequate capital stop your dream.
A capital of N50k-N80k would be reasonable to start up with, depending on the availability of resources and your taste.
Secure a Good Location
What makes a good location for your poultry farming business in Nigeria?
- Spacious enough. This depends on the number of birds you plan to raise.
- A calm, pollution-free environment
- Preferably away from the dense areas
- Great ventilation – make sure there are no nearby tall buildings that could disrupt cool breeze, so your birds don’t die of suffocation.
- Proximity to the market – for ease of transportation for your cows
- Good source of water – for the birds.
Plan Temperature, Infrastructure and Security
Remember that birds are very delicate and fragile. Room temperature is as important as food and water to your poultry. The best temperatures for layers are between 19 – 25°C. When the room temperature rises above 25°C, it becomes a problem. Their egg weights will begin to reduce. The quality of their shells, too, becomes thinner and thinner.
The best temperatures for layers are between 19 – 25°C. When the room temperature rises above 25°C, it becomes a problem.
The favourable temperature for broilers is majorly dependant on age. Broilers need higher room temperature at chicklings but generally lesser temperature when they are all grown.
The next step is to do a proper safe house for your birds. The interior of your house should be relatively spacious, your bird-house should not be overcrowded. Ensure proper room temperature to shield them against harsh weather and rain. Your birds should not be allowed to roam, freely, in the compound. Remember they can fly!
Also, perform routine snake and rodent repellant exercises to keep rodents, fangs, and poisons far away from your birds. Your facility should have a reasonably high fence with barbed wire installed (not mandatory), to prevent petty thieves from coming in to cart away your birds – protect your investment.
Decide on the type of bird to raise and buy them
We have different types of birds such as the Emu, turkey, quails, ducks, broilers, hens, and so on. It is realistic to zero in on ONE type of bird, at most, TWO. Know the type of breed you want on your farm. Poultry farming in Nigeria is all about eggs and meat. To the Nigerian farmer, this means broilers, cockerels, and layers.
Layers are the females. Grown for egg production, this breed is the most productive if handled properly. They start laying from 16-17 weeks old (four months) and do not stop laying eggs until they are 15-16 months old. To handle this breed, you require a lot of meticulous attention centered on them because a lot of things capable of killing/infecting them happens in 15 months.
Regardless of the sex, broilers are raised from chickling to adult for meat only. Their growth is very fast – they grow up to 2kg – 2.5kg from chickling in just two months only. These are the most common in our neighbourhoods farms. Within 4-6 months, they are ready for the market.
The great survivor of harsh conditions, the cockerels are the most adaptive of these breeds. They are stronger, hence slower to raise. They are also raised for meat, like the broilers. Only that their bones are obviously stronger, hence costlier in the markets. To venture into this breed, I strongly advise that you to confirm your target market first.
Feeding and Vaccination
Poultry feeds are very easy to get, they are everywhere. However, you must ensure that your poultry feed is kept clean and dry always. Food is a vital part of their development. To have a successful poultry farming business in Nigeria, raise healthy, quality birds, make sure they eat, and drink healthy.
Recommended Vaccine Programs
Even if they all seem lively and bubbly, still make vaccination a priority too. Vaccines are protective and cautionary measures taken to prevent major infections amongst your beloved birds. Poultry is fragile and susceptible to bacterial, viral, and fungi infections. It takes hours to get a disease to spread through an entire flock!
Vaccines for Layers:
|14–21 days||Infectious bursal disease||Water|
|5 wk||Newcastle/infectious bronchitis||Water or coarse spray|
|8–10 wk||Newcastle/infectious bronchitis||Water or coarse spray|
|10–12 wk||Encephalomyelitis||Wing web|
Vaccines for Broilers:
|1 day||Marek’s disease||SC|
|14–21 days||Newcastle/infectious bronchitis||Water|
|14–28 days||Infectious bursal disease||Water|
How to Sell your Birds and Eggs
Confirm your Target Market
The end result of all your efforts is to sell your poultry produce. Poultry farming business in Nigeria is all about knowing your target market. Your target markets should consist of hotels, malls, resellers, restaurants, ships, individuals, party planners, and so many more. Knowing your target market also ensures your products do not get stale, while waiting for orders.
Maintain Quality of Meat and Eggs
Your clients, distributors, and prospects mentioned above will appreciate quality, as quality of eggs and meat are the hardest things to come by in the poultry business-sphere nowadays.
Advertise and Make your Services Assessible
Thrive in your poultry farming business in Nigeria by going digital. Digitalize your business by opening Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook pages for your business. Engage your clients and potential clients via these media. Please, be responsive and polite in your engagements with clients and prospects. Make catchy and effective advertisements on these pages and be sure to display your quality at all times.
Hire Sales Reps
You can hire sales representatives as the poultry business grows. This will give you ample time to concentrate on the quality of birds and eggs your farm is churning out on a daily basis.